The main tools for World Class Manufacturing: Features and description

wcm tools lean pdca

WCM requires all decisions to be made based on objective measured data and its analysis. Therefore, all the traditional data analysis tools such as scatter diagrams, histograms and checklists are used. Thus, from literature survey it is inferred that it is not possible to use the specific single tool to achieve world-class performance and address all the manufacturing components. It is inferred that to address all the components of the manufacturing system the following tools are necessary (see Table 1.):

Table 1. Main WCM Tools and description

Main Tools


5 G

It is a methodology for the description and the analysis of a loss phenomenon (defects, failures malfunctions…). It based on the facts and the use of the 5 senses

4M or 5M

It is used by the list of possible factors (causes, sub-causes) that give rise to the phenomenon. For the 4M the causes are grouped into 4 categories: Methods; Materials; Machines; Mans.
And for the 5M, there are the same 4M more the fifth that is the environment.

5 S

It is used to achieve excellence through improvement of the workplace in terms of order, organization and cleanliness. The technique is based on: Seiri (separate and order); Seiton (arrange and organize); Seiso (clean); Seiketsu (standardized); Shitsuke (maintaining and improving).

5W + 1H

It is used to ensure a complete analysis of a problem on all its fundamental aspects. The questions corresponding to the 5 W and 1 H are: Who? What? Why? Where? When? How?

5 Whys

It is used to analyze the causes of a problem through a consecutive series of questions. It is applied in failures analysis, analysis of sporadic anomalies, analysis of chronic losses arising from specific causes.

AM Tag

It is a sheet which, suitably completed, is applied on the machine, in order to report any anomaly detected.

WO Tag

It is a sheet which, suitably completed, is used in order to report any anomaly detected for Workplace Organization

PM Tag

It is a sheet which, suitably completed, is used in order to report any anomaly detected for Professional Maintenance.

Heinrich Pyramid

It is used for classifying the events that have an impact on safety such as fatalities, serious, minor, medications, near-accidents, accidents, dangerous conditions and unsafe practices over time.


It is a sheet which, suitably completed, is used in order to report any anomaly detected for Safety.

Equipment ABC Prioritization

It is used to classify plants according their priorities of intervention in case of failure.

Cleaning cycles

Are used for activities on Autonomous Maintenance, Workplace Organization and Professional Maintenance.

Inspection cycles

Are used for activities on Autonomous Maintenance, Workplace Organization and Professional Maintenance.

Maintenance cycles

Are used for activities on Autonomous Maintenance and Professional Maintenance.

Control cycles

Are used for activities on Autonomous Maintenance, Workplace Organization and Professional Maintenance.

FMEA-Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

It is used to prevent the potential failure modes.


It is a tag used for programming and production scheduling.

Kaizen   (Quick, Standard, Major, Advanced)

It is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workplace, eliminates overly hard work.

Two Videocamera Method

It is used to perform the video recording of the transactions in order to optimize them.

MURI Analysis

Ergonomic analysis of workstations.

MURA Analysis

Analysis of irregular operations.

MUDA Analysis

Analysis of losses.

Spaghetti Chart

It is a graphical used to detail the actual physical flow and distances involved in a work process.

Golden Zone & Strike zone Analysis

Analysis of work operations in the area that favors the handling in order to minimize movement to reduce fatigue.

OPL (One Point Lesson)

It is a technique that allows a simple and effective focus in a short time on the object of the training.

SOP (Standard Operation Procedure)

Standard procedure for work.

JES (Job Elementary Sheet)

Sheet of elementary education.

Visual Aid

It is a set of signals that facilitates the work and communication within the company.

Poka Yoke

It is a prevention technique in order to avoid possible human errors in performance of any productive activity.

TWTTP (The way to teach people)

It is an interview in 4 questions to test the level of training on the operation to be performed.

HERCA (Human Error Root Cause Analysis)

It is a technique for the investigation of events of interest, in particular accidents, which examines what happened researching why it happened.

RJA (Reconditional Judgment Action Analysis)

Analysis of judgment, recognition and action phases at work.

5Q 0D (Five Questions to Zero Defects)

Analysis of the process or of the equipment (machine) through five questions to have zero defect.


It is a techniques enables designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that could affect the output results in any design.


It is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance in a particular variable is partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation.

PPA (Processing Point Analysis)

It is used for restore, maintain and improve operational standards of work by ensuring zero defects.

QA Matrix (Matrix Quality Assurance)

It is a set of matrices which shows the correlations between the anomalies of the product and the phases of the production system.

QM Matrix (Matrix Maintenance Quality)

It is a tool used to define and maintain the operating conditions of the machines which ensure performance of the desired quality.

QA Network quality assurance network

It is used to ensure the quality of the process by eliminating rework.

QuOA quality operation analysis

Preventive analysis of the work steps to ensure the quality.

SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die)

It is a set of techniques to perform operations of development, set-up, with a duration < 10 minutes.

Rhythmic operation analysis

Analysis of the dispersion during the work cycle.

Motion Economic Method

Analysis used to evaluate the efficiency of movement and optimize them.

Value Stream Map

It allows to highlight the waste of a process business, helping to represent the current flow of materials and information that, in relation to a specific product, through the value stream between customer and suppliers.

Material Matrix

Classification of materials according to tree families A – B – C and subgroups.

X Matrix

It is a tool for quality improvement, which allows compare two pairs of lists of items to highlight the correlations between a list, and the two adjacent lists. X matrix to relate defect mode, phenomenon, equipment section and quality components.


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